Charge modes and types in the electric car market


Charge modes of electric cars

There are different modes of charging in the market. Charge is connected to the level of communication between the electric vehicle and the recharging infrastructure. (and thus the electrical network), and the control of the charging process. (programming it, checking the status, stopping it, resuming it)

  • Mode 1

Domestic Schuko type plug with no communications between charging infrastructure and electric vehicle. In other words, it has no communication with the network. A conventional plug is used for this recharge mode.

  • Mode 2

Domestic wall plug Schuko, with pilot function systems included in the cable. The cable has an intermediate pilot control device that serves to verify the correct connection of the vehicle to the network. It has a communication with the low network.

  • Mode 3

Has a high level of communication with the network. The control devices and protections are located within the recharging point itself, and the cable includes integrated communication pilot wire. For example, the connectors SAE J1772, Mennekes (IEC 62196) can be used

  • Mode 4

With a high level of communication with the network. There is a DC converter and only applies to fast recharge. For example, the CHAdeMO or COMBO DC connector.



Charging types for electric cars

The charge types of electric cars are classified according to the speed of it. Thus, they are classified according to the time it takes to recharge the battery. Currently there are five types of electric car charge.


1. Rapid charging 

Its use is not very common, it is in an experimental state in electric vehicles tested with accumulators of super-capacity type. (for example some electric buses). The batteries can be recharged in five or ten minutes, and the recharge power is very high. Lithium-ion batteries do not withstand the high temperature caused by this type of recharging, as it severely deteriorates its useful life.


2. Fast charging 

The power that is demanded is very high, between 44 and 50 kW. Recharging those 22 to 24 kWh batteries can take half an hour. The normal thing is that you do not recharge 100% but around 80% or 90%.


3. Semi-fast charging

The duration of the recharge ranges from one to four hours. It is a charge with a power of about 22 kW. This form of charging is, for example, very common in Renault.


4. Slow charging

This form of recharge is what we usually call normal or conventional. The batteries are usually recharged between six and eight hours and are performed at 16 A, demanding about 3.6 kW of power.


5. Super-slow charging

When the current intensity is limited to 10 A or less because there is no recharging base with adequate protection and electrical installation. The full recharge of the batteries of an average electric car, about 22 to 24 kWh capacity, can take between ten and twelve hours.